An employee can obtain a benefit when provided with an employment-related cheap or interest-free loan. The benefit is the difference between the interest the employee pays, if any, and the commercial rate the employee would have to pay on a loan obtained elsewhere. These types of loans are referred to as beneficial loans. A taxable cheap loan is an employment-related loan: which is outstanding for all or part of the year in which the employee is in employment, and no interest is paid on the loan, or the interest paid is less than is due at the official rate of interest, and none of the exceptions listed in sections 176-179 ITEPA apply. The official rate of interest on beneficial loan arrangements is currently 2.5%. A change in the rate is only made in the event of significant changes in interest rates. An employee can also benefit if an employment-related loan is released or written off. He or she is then no longer obliged to repay the amount that was lent. A benefit in kind will be applicable where a loan is provided at an interest rate of less than 2.5%. In addition, employers must also pay Class 1A National Insurance. It is not necessary for the loan to be advantageous to the recipient for a chargeable benefit to arise.